კოლოიდური ვერცხლი - ბუნებრივი ანტიბიოტიკი214-10-10

პათოგენურ მიკროორგანიზმძე ვერცხლის იონთა ანტიმიკრობული მოქმედების მექანიზმის შესახებ.

ბიოაქტიური კომპლექსნაერთები ახალ ტექნოლოგიებში.
თენგიზ წივწივაძე, ნოდარ ჩიგოგიძე, რეზო სხილაძე, რეზო კლდიაშვილი, გია სულაქველიძე

 

mimoxilviTi xasiaTis samecniero naSromi moicavs nanovercxlSemcveli wylisa da misi koncentratebis fizikur-qimiur da fiziologiur qmedebebs paTogenur mikroorganizmebze. naCvenebia eleqtrolituri vercxlis antimikrobuli moqmedebis meqanizmi sasmeli, mineraluri wylebis da sakvebi produqtebis gausnebovnebisas da samkurnalo-profilaqtikur praqtikaSi. gaanalizebulia kvlevis Sedegebi biogenuri vercxlis-utramikroelementis Sesaxeb, romelic aucilebelia cocxal arsebaTa rigi organoebis normaluri funqcionirebisaTvis, agreTve vercxlis xsnarebis, e.w. ,,vercxlis wylis” Sesaxeb, romelsac aqvs maRali baqtericiduli Tvisebebi.

istoriuli cnoba: vercxlTan adamianTa damokidebulebis Sesaxeb mowmobs liTonis saxelwodeba. Tavad gansajeT, rusuli ,,serebro”, germanuli ,,zilberi”, inglisuri ,,silveri” warmomavlobas iReben Zvelinduri sityvidan - ,,sarpa”, romelic aRniSnavda mTvares da masTan analogiiT serpi – miwaTmoqmedebis uZvelesi iaraRi (rusuli sityva ,,serp”-ic, ra Tqma unda, ,,sarpi”-dan warmomdgaria). vercxlis laTinuri saxelwodeba ,,argentum”, iseve rogorc ZvelberZnuli ,,argiros”, Sumeruli ,,ku-babbar”, Zvelegvipturi ,,had”, aRniSnavs ,,TeTrs”. samxreT amerikis indielebs didi xnis nacnoboba hqoniaT vercxlTan da uamravi raodenobis liTonic daugrovebiaT wlebis ganmavlobaSi. indielTa civilizaciis mospobis Semdeg, espaneli dampyroblebi daundoblad Zarcvavdnen maT miwawyals. sebastian kabolas mezRvaurebma, naviT laSqrobisas, romlebic micuravdnen uzarmazari mdinaris (igi misi pirvelaRmomCenis locman rio de solis saxels atarebda) dinebis mimarTulebiT, imdenad auracxeli raodenobis vercxli waarTves adgilobriv mosaxleobas, rom eqspediciis meTaurma samarTlianad miiCnia, locmanis saxelis nacvlad, misTvis vercxlis – la platis – mdinare ewodebina, rac dRemde SemorCa. vercxlis – la platis saxeli uwodes espanelebma qveyanasac, sadac es mdinare miedineba. espanelebisgan gaTavisuflebis Semdeg (1848w.) qveyanas Seucvales saxeli da uwodes argentina – sxvaTaSoris, Sinaarsobrivad saxelwodeba igive darCa. vercxlis istoria mWidrod dakavSirebulia alqimiasTan da misi aRmavlobis periodSi SemuSavebulia vercxlis kupelirebis meTodi. kidev ufro Zvel droSi (2500 wlis winaT), egvipteSi atarebdnen vercxlisgan damzadebul samkaulebs da mimoqcevaSi iyo vercxlis monetebi, romlebic oqroze Zvirad fasobda. Xs. dadasturebulad iTvleboda vercxlisa da spilenZis  analogia da spilenZi ganixileboda rogorc wiTlad Seferili vercxli. XVIs. paracelsim elementebisgan miiRo vercxlis qloridi, xolo boilma gamoikvlia misi qimiuri Sedgeniloba. medicinaSi cnobili gaxda koloiduri vercxlis Semcveli rigi farmacevtuli preparatebi (argiroli, kolargoli, protargoli da sxv.), rogorc lorwovan garsze moqmedi antiseptikuri saSualebebi, aseve,  suspenziebs axasiaTebs antiseptikuri Tvisebebi, vercxlis ionebi () spobs baqteriebs da asterilebs wyals.

kacobriobis modgmisTvis liTonur vercxlTan kontaqtis Semdeg wylis samkurnalo-profilaqtikuri Tvisebebi cnobili iyo jer kidev Soreul warsulSi. amis dasturia samecniero Sromebi dawerili sanskritze [1]. antikuri msoflios istorikos herodotes cnobiT, Cvens eramde V saukuneSi, sparseTis mefe kirioni laSqrobis dros sargeblobda iseTi sasmeli wyliT, romelic Senaxuli iyo vercxlis ,,wminda” WurWelSi. indusTa religiur wignebSi moxseniebulia wylis gausnebovnebis Sesaxeb, masSi gavarvarebuli vercxlis xanmokle CaZirviT wyalTan liTonis xangrZlivi kontaqtis Sedegad, Cveulebriv pirobebSi. zogierT qveyanaSi Cveuleba iyo wylis gawmendisTvis masSi vercxlis monetebis Cayra an kidev vercxlis TasebSi wylis Senaxva. miaCndaT, rom aRniSnuli saSualebebiT umjobesdeboda wylis xarisxi, magram, ra Tqma unda, mravali aswleulis manZilze xalxs ar hqonda araviTari warmodgena am dros mimdinare procesTa arsis Sesaxeb.

XIX saukunis bolos mecnier-mkvlevarTa yuradReba miipyro zogierTi liTonis madezinfeqcirebelma Tvisebebma. samecniero literaturaSi gaCnda cnobebi liTonTa (spilenZi, vercxli) unarze wyalTan kontaqtisas masSi arsebuli mikroorganizmebis daxocvis Sesaxeb. es aRmoCena ekuTvnis Sveicariel botanikos k. negels, romelmac igi gamoaqveyna Tavis samecniero naSromSi [2]. is akvirdeboda vercxlis zemoqmedebas mtknari wylis wyalmcenareebze da aRwera procesTa ori saxe, romlebic xdeboda ujredSi vercxlis gavleniT. vercxlis didi koncentraciebis zemoqmedebiT  ujredis garsi  ikumSeboda  qloroplasTan  erTdroulad  (aseve  xdeba  sxva  mZime liTonebiT  mowamvlis  drosac).  vercxlis  mcire  koncentraciebisas (1:100 000 000) qloroplasti gamoeyofoda garss da ikumSeboda. aseT movlenas negelma uwoda oligodinamia (berZn. sityvidan ,,олигос” – kvali da ,,динамис” – moqmedeba, e.i. kvalis moqmedeba) – mecnierebma daadgines, rom vercxli avlens oligodinamiur Tvisebebs mxolod gaxsnil mdgomareobaSi [3].

hercbergma daadastura negelis cdebi. is akvirdeboda myar sakveb garemos, romelSic daTesili iyo baqteriebi, koloiduri vercxlis wveTis garSemo sterilur zonas. aseTi zonis arsebobas mkvlevari xsnida vercxlis maRali koncentraciis moqmedebiT mis centralur nawilSi, xolo ganapira adgilebSi vercxlis oligodinamiuri moqmedebiT. aseTi axsna savsebiT SesabamisobaSia negelis TeoriasTan.

vincetma, adarebda ra erTmaneTs zogierTi liTonis aqtiurobas, daadgina, rom baqteriebze yvelaze Zlier zegavlenas axdenda vercxli, Semdeg spilenZi da oqro. difteriis Cxiri vercxlis firfitaze iRupeboda 3 dRis Semdeg, spilenZze – 6 dRis, xolo oqros firfitaze 8 dRis Semdeg. stafilokokebi iRupeboda: vercxlze – 2 dRis Semdeg, spilenZze – 3, oqroze – 9 dRis Semdeg. tifis Cxirebi iRupeboda – vercxlze da spilenZze 18 saaTis, xolo oqroze 6-7 dRis Semdeg.

mecnierTa erTi jgufis mier [4,5] naCvenebia, rom vercxlis mier baqteriebis mospobis efeqti damokidebulia liTonis zedapirze marilTa da oqsidTa warmoqmnaze. es naerTebi wyalSi gaxsnisas warmoqmnian vercxlis ionTa ama Tu im koncentracias, romlebic ganapirobeben mis baqtericidul Tvisebebs. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom eqsperimentSi dadgenilia [6] qimiurad sufTa liTonuri vercxlis mcire baqtericiduroba.

saintereso Sedegebia miRebuli tiles da volfis mier, romlebmac eqsperimentulad Seiswavles ramdenime galvanuri wyvilis baqtericiduli efeqti: vercxli – oqro, vercxli – platina, vercxlis fxvnili – paladiumi, naxSiri – vercxli. naCvenebia, rom aseT wyvilebSi biologiurad aqtiuria xsnadi eleqtrodebi. kaTodTa garSemo steriluri zona araa dafiqsirebuli an Tu dafiqsirebulia Zalian umniSvnelod maSin, rodesac vercxlis anodis garSemo SemCneulia steriluri zonis farTo areali, vidre imave liTonis firfitis garSemo, romelic ar iyo CarTuli eleqtrodul wyvilSi. 0,000005 g naxSiris damatebiT 1g vercxlis fxvnilze mniSvnelovnad Zlierdeba misi baqtericiduli efeqti.

naSromis avtoris [7] mier Catarebuli eqsperimentuli samuSaoebis mixedviT dadasturebulia, rom mxolod liTonTa (konkretul SemTxvevaSi vercxli) ionebi da maTi disocirebuli naerTebi (nivTierebebi, romlebsac unari aqvT daiSalon ionebad) iwveven mikroorganizmTa daRupvas. yvela SemTxvevaSi, baqtericiduli efeqtis dros, vercxlis aqtiurobis xarisxi miT metia, rac ufro maRalia ionTa koncentracia xsnarSi [8-15].

eleqtronuli wyvilebis warmoqmna xels uwyobs liTonis (romelic gamodis anodis rolSi) gadasvlas ionebis saxiT xsnarSi. amave mizeziT oqsidirebuli liTonebi, imave liTonis oqsidis an peroqsidis afskiT dafaruli, xasiaTdebian maRali aqtiurobiT, vidre araoqsidirebulebi. wyalSi arsebuli ucxo nivTierebebi uaryofiT gavlenas axdens baqtericidulobaze, Tu isini SeikavSireben vercxlis ionebs da gaxdebian mcired disocirebadi an Znelad xsnadi da gamoiyofian naleqSi.

mikroorganizmebze vercxlis moqmedebis mravali Teoriidan yvelaze metad gavrcelebulia adsorbciuli Teoria, romelsac mxars uWerdnen iseTi cnobili mecnier-mkvlevarebi, rogoricaa vignati da Snabeli [16], laitneri [17], jakobi da monodi [18], cimermani [19,20] da sxv. am Teoriis ZiriTadi safuZvelia is, rom ujredi hkargavs sicocxlisunarianobas eleqtrostatikuri Zalebis urTierTqmedebis Sedegad, romlebic warmoiqmneba uaryofiTad damuxtul baqteriebsa da dadebiTad damuxtul vercxlis ionebs Soris, am ukanasknelTa adsorbciiT baqteriebis ujredebze. adsorbciuli Teoriis gamoyenebiT mravalma mecnier-mkvlevarma miiRo damajerebeli da saimedo Sedegebi. mag. laitnerma daadgina, rom kompleqsSi ,,baqteria-vercxli” es ukanaskneli SeiZleba gamoZevebul iqnes iseTi nivTierebiT, romlis ionebi Zlier urTierTqmedeben baqteriis zedapirTan. aseT SemTxvevaSi antimikrobuli efeqti mcirdeba.

jer kidev 1919w. zausma gamoikvlia mikroorganizmTa sxeulSi vercxlis daleqva da daadgina, rom sxvadasxva baqteria afiqsirebs vercxlis araTanabar raodenobas, Tavis zomebze damokidebulebiT. mag., safuars, ganzavebisas 1:105, damatebuli hqonda 4% vercxli mSrali masis mimarT, xolo ufro mcire zomis baqteriebs (mag. Escherichia coli) – Sesabamisad naklebi.

freindlixma da solnerma [21] qimiuri analizis gziT daafiqsires adsorbirebuli vercxli oligodinamikurad mkvdar wyalmcenareTa ujredebze. knafelmanma titvris meTodiT [22] moaxdina adsorbciis Sedegad xsnarSi darCenili vercxlis ionebis gansazRvra da daadgina, rom adsorbciis xarisxi Zalian maRalia da sruliad sakmarisi imisaTvis, rom gamoiwvios baqteriuli ujredebis daRupva.

zogierT mkvlevars miaCnia, rom gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mieqces fizikur-qimiur procesebs, romlebsac adgili aqvs baqteriis protoplazmaSi. vernikma gamoTqva mosazreba, rom vercxlis ionebis moqmedeba baqteriebze mdgomareobs protoplazmis daJangvaSi JangbadiT, romelic gaxsnilia wyalSi, amasTan, vercxli TamaSobs katalizatoris rols. aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba varaudi imis Sesaxeb, rom liTonis ionebi arian, ZiriTadad, Jangbadis gadamtanebi, xolo Tavad daJangva mdgomareobs uSualod Jangbadis mierTebaSi, iseve rogorc protoplazmis dehidrirebul naerTSi.

sxva Teorias emxrobodnen orcexovski da Stolci [23], romlebic sakuTari gamokvlevebis safuZvelze gamoTqvamdnen mosazrebas mikrobul ujredebze vercxlis ionTa uSualod oligodinamikuri moqmedebis ararsebobaze. maTi azriT, vercxli, warmoqmnis ra kompleqsur naerTebs, aris -ionebis gadamtani. dadebiTad damuxtul vercxlis ionebs mihyavT uaryofiTad damuxtuli -is ionebi mikrobuli ujredis zedapirisken, sadac isini uerTdebian ra wyalbads, warmoqmnian marilmJavas, romelic iwvevs ,,fermentatul anarqias” ujredSi.

brikmanis [24] daskvnebi ar adastureben aseT varauds. Seiswavla ra eleqtronuli mikroskopiT nawlavTa Cxirebi, romlebzec moqmedebda vercxliT, qloriT da ozoniT, man ver SeamCnia raime struqturuli cvlileba am baqteriebSi vercxlis gavleniT maSin, rodesac rogorc qlori, aseve ozoni iwvevda msgavs darRvevebs.

amave dros Catarebulma eleqtrono-mikroskopulma gamokvlevebma aCvena [7], rom: a) vercxlis dozebi 0,5-dan 5mg/l-mde ar axdens gavlenas baqteriuli ujredebis morfologiur struqturaze da b) dezinfeqtantebis dozis amaRlebiT citoplazma miT ufro mkvrivdeba, rac metia eqspozicia.

es monacemebi gaxda safuZveli ujredebis ultrastruqturuli organizaciis cvlilebaTa SeswavlisaTvis, dezinfeqtantebis (vercxlis gadidebuli koncentraciebis gamoyeneba, mocemuli kvlevebisTvis, aixsneba imiT, rom eleqtronul-mikroskopuli samuSaoebisTvis ixmareba maRali mikrobuli datvirTva 4-5mlrd. mikrobuli ujredi 1ml.) naCvenebi dozis   moqmedebis   pirobebSi.   am  gamokvlevebma  aCvena,  rom  vercxli koncentraciebiT 1-2mg/l iwvevs citoplazmis mxolod umniSvnelo gamkvrivebas da mis gadawevas ujreduli kedlidan (dakvirvebis dro 15-20wT); vercxlis 5mg/l koncentraciis dros gamovlinda baqteriuli ujredebis  submikroskopuli  struqturebis cvlileba, romelic Tavs iCens citoplazmis SekumSvaSi, 30wT-is kontaqtis Semdeg. aseve SemCneulia nukleidis ujredSi cvlileba – vercxlis 5mg/l moqmedebiT nukleidi mkveTrad mkvrivdeba. baqteriuli ujredis morfologiuri da ultrastruqturuli cvlileba damokidebulia dezinfeqtantis koncentraciasa da kontaqtis droze [25]. vercxlis antimikrobuli efeqtis problemis gadawyvetaSi mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitanes voracma da tofernma [26], romlebmac vercxlis oligodinamikuri moqmedeba axsnes fermentebis (Seicaven SH- da COOH - jgufebs) mwyobridan gamoyvaniT.  erT-erTi aseTi fermentis darRveva iwvevs
ujredis mTeli sistemis funqciis moSlas.

g. perSinis [27] da sxva mkvlevarebis mixedviT miCneulia, rom vercxlis moqmedebiT baqteriebis daRupva xdeba fermentuli sistemis inaqtivaciis Sedegad, dehidrazuli fermentebis SH - jgufebis SekavSirebis gziT, mag., suqcinat-oqsidaza, xolinoqsidaza [28]. uebas [29] SexedulebiT vercxlis ionebi jer iwyeben sunTqvis procesis stimulirebas, xolo Semdeg mis mkveTr daTrgunvas.

tonlim da vilsonma [30] ujredze vercxlis ionis moqmedebis meqanizmi axsnes mis mier osmosuri wonasworobis darRveviT. aris monacemebi, romlebic adastureben mZime liTonebTan nukleinmJavis kompleqsebis warmoqmnas [31,32]. dadgenilia, rom vercxli ukavSirdeba ra dezoqsiribonukleinmJavas azotis safuZvlebiT, Sedegad irRveva dnk-as stabiluroba da Sesabamisad baqteriebis sicocxlisunarianoba. vercxlis gavleniT xdeba nawlavTa baqteriebis kulturuli da bioqimiuri Tvisebebis cvlileba [33].

s. tokaom [34] daadgina, rom vercxli 1-5mg/l koncentraciiT Trgunavs riboflavinis biosinTezs Candida robusta-Tan.

gusom, TanamSromlebTan [35] erTad, gamoTqva mosazreba, rom vercxlis ionebi, adrenalinis msgavsad, katalizur gavlenas axdens fermentul sistemaze.

aris monacemebi, romlebic mowmoben imis Sesaxeb, rom vercxlis winaaRmdegobrivi qmedeba dakavSirebulia lipidebis SemcvelobasTan baqterialur ujredebSi. rac metia lipidebi, miT maRalia baqteriebis winaaRmdegoba [20].

literaturaSi aris damatebiTi cnobebi mikrobuli ujredis fermentebze vercxlis gavlenis Sesaxeb. bregma da reinim [36] aCvenes, rom vercxlis ionebi axdenen glukozis, fumaritis, suqcinitis, laqtitis da endogenuri substratebis daJangvis inhibirebas nawlavTa Cxirebis intaqtiuri ujredebis suspenziebiT.

miuxedavad simravlisa, zemoT aRniSnulma samecniero-kvleviTma naSromebma srulyofilad mainc ver axsnes mikroorganizmebis daRupvis mizezebi vercxlis ionTa gavleniT.

ukrainis mecnierebTa akademiis koloiduri qimiisa da wylis qimiis institutis mecnierTa erTi jgufis mier, l. kulskis xelmZRvanelobiT, Catarebulia sistemuri samecniero-kvleviTi samuSaoebi mikrobul ujredebze vercxlis moqmedebis meqanizmis dazustebisaTvis. cnobilia, rom liTonis STanTqma ujrediT SeiZleba moxdes sami sxvadasxva gziT: 1) liTonis STanTqma ujreduli zedapiriT; 2) liTonis aqtiuri gadataniT ujredSi da 3) orfaziani procesiT: pirveli faza – adsorbcia, romelic swrafad icvleba meore faziT – liTonis ,,aqtiuri transportirebiT” ujredSi. kulskis jgufis mier [7] Catarebuli cdebiT naCvenebia, rom mikroorganizmTa ujredebiT vercxlis STanTqma, maTi sxvadasxva Sedgenilobisgan damoukideblad, mimdinareobs pirveli gziT – ujreduli zedapiriT liTonis STanTqma. dadgenilia, rom sxvadasxva saxis mikroorganizmebSi xdeba verclis maRali xarisxiT adsorbcia mikrobuli ujrediT. 250ml tevadobis kolbaSi vercxlis SemcvelobiT 0,05; 0,1 da 0,5mg/l Seitanes 18-saaTiani kulturebi Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus da Candida albicans koncentraciebiT 108 erTeuli/l da moaxdines inkubacia saqanelaze 37°C temperaturaze, erTi saaTis ganmavlobaSi. Semdeg moaxdines sinjebis centrifugireba 600br/wT 10wT-is ganmavlobaSi. vercxlis koncentraciis gansazRvram gamonaleq siTxeSi aCvena, rom 0,05mg/l dozisas vercxlis mTliani raodenobis sorbireba moxda baqteriebiT, 0,1mg/l dozis dros – 90%, xolo 0,2mg/l dozis dros – mxolod 50%.

mikrobul ujredSi vercxlis fardobiTi lokalizaciis Sesaxeb dawvrilebiTi monacemebi motanilia naSromebSi [37-40]. safuaris kultura vercxlis ionebiT damuSavebisas iSleboda, xolo Semdeg xdeboda misi centrifugireba 2000br/wT 10 wuTis ganmavlobaSi. miiReboda 2 fraqcia: naleqi, romelic Seicavda ujredis kedlebsa da membranebs, da supernatanti. vercxlis raodenobis cvlilebam aCvena, rom 90% iyo ujredis kedlebis da membranebis fraqciaSi. sxva cdaSi Seswavlilia vercxlis adsorbcia ujredis protoplastebiT (ujredi garsebis gareSe) – aRmoCnda, rom protoplastebi, iseve rogorc mTeli ujredebi, swrafad ukavSirdeba Setanil vercxls, magram isini gacilebiT swrafad iRupebian, vidre mTeli ujredebi.

aseve naCvenebia, rom vercxlisa da spilenZis ionebis STanTqmis xasiaTi C.utilis ujredebiT sxvadasxvaa. vercxlis ionebis STanTqma baqteriebiT xdeba Zalian swrafad da ar aris damokidebuli energetikuli substratis temperaturaze da kulturis fiziologiur mdgomareobaze, e.i. gamowveuli iyo vercxlis fizikur-qimiuri adsorbciiT, ujredis zedapiris mier. spilenZiT ujredis sruli gajereba xdeboda mxolod 2 saaTis Semdeg, damokidebuli iyo temperaturaze da warmoadgenda aqtiur transports [41].

avtori naSromisa [7] varaudobs, rom vercxlis ufro efeqturi baqtericiduri Tvisebebi, sxva liTonebTan SedarebiT, ganpirobebulia imiT, rom ujredebis protoplastebi iSleba vercxlis ufro dabali koncentraciebis dros, vidre Tavad ujredi. naSromis avtori vercxlis toqsikuri moqmedebis meqanizms xsnis citoplazmuri membranis funqciis darRveviT. baqterialuri fermentebis aqtiurobaze vercxlis gavlenis SeswavliT, romlebic rogorc cnobilia lokalizdeba citoplazmur membranaSi, naCvenebia, rom vercxli Trgunavs Saqrebisa da glutaminis mJavis dehidrogenazebs. daTrgunvis xarisxsa da dezinfektantis koncentracias Soris SemCneulia pirdapiri damokidebuleba. baqteriis dehidrogenaturi aqtiurobis inhibireba izrdeboda koncentraciis gazrdiT, agreTve kontaqtis drois gadidebiT [42].

amrigad, Tanamedrove monacemebiT mikrobul ujredze vercxlis moqmedebis meqnizmi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom igi sorbirdeba ujreduli garsiT, amave dros ujreduli garsi asrulebs damcav funqcias da Tavad ujredi rCeba sicocxlisunariani, Tumca irRveva zogierTi misi funqcia, mag., dayofa (baqteriostatikuri efeqti). rogorc ki ujredis zedapirze sorbirdeba vercxlis Warbi raodenoba, es ukanaskneli maSinve iwyebs SeRwevas ujredis SigniT da Sekavdeba citoplazmuri membraniT. citoplazmur membranaSi ganlagebulia ujredis ZiriTadi fermentuli sistemebi. vercxli axdens baqterialuri fermentebis blokirebas, ris Sedegadac ujredebi iRupeba.

am Sexedulebas adasturebs naSromebSi [7,8,14,27,29,30,32,36-40] motanili eqsperimentuli monacemebi, romelTagan SevCerdebiT erT maTganze [7], romelSic naCvenebia, rom E.coli inaqtivaciis procesi sinTezur garemoSi Sedgeba ori fazisgan: 1) inaqtivaciis Senelebuli faza (vercxlis koncentracia 0,02-0,08mg/l), 2) swrafi faza, romelsac SesaZlebelia Tan axldes inhibitoris zemoqmedeba ujredis ramdenime metabolur reaqciaze. saWiroa aRiniSnos, rom sxva mZime liTonebisagan gansxvavebiT, mag., spilenZi, vercxlis moqmedebas Tan axlavs antimikrobuli efeqtis mkveTri gaZliereba koncentraciiT 0,08mg/l da zeviT (mocemuli konkretuli pirobisaTvis; ix. nax. 1).ნახატი 1  koncentracia, mg/l gadaangariSebuli -ze nax. 1. sinTezur garemoSi vercxlis ionebis koncentraciaze E. coli 1257
zrdis siCqaris Sebrunebuli sididis damokidebuleba:
1 – erTsaaTiani kultivireba;
2 – orsaaTiani kultivireba;
3 – samsaaTiani kultivireba.

vercxlis antimikrobul aqtiurobaze wylis pH gavlenis Seswavlis dros dagdenilia [15] am aqtiurobis amaRleba tute garemoSi, mJavur da neitralur garemosTan SedarebiT. vercxlis gavlenis Seswavlam E.coli 1257-is zrdis kinetikaze, sinTezuri garemos sxvadasxva pH dros, aseve aCvena, rom vercxli yvelaze ufro efeqturad aferxebs zrdas sust tute garemoSi – pH=8 da zeviT.

nax. 2-ze naCvenebia, rom vercxli koncentraciiT 0,2mg/l, pH 5,3 dros, mxolod umniSvnelod amcirebs zrdis siCqares sakontrolosTan SedarebiT; pH 7 dros imave koncentraciis vercxli aferxebs zrdas 4 sT; xolo pH 8 dros – kulturuli siTxis optikuri simkvrive uwyvetad ecema, rac mowmobs kulturulis daRupvas. SesaZloa es dakavSirebulia ujreduli membranis stabilurobisa da SeRwevadobis darRvevasTan, dro, sT agreTve maTi unaris cvlilebasTan

ნახატი 2nax. 2.

vercxlis moqmedebs. E.coli urTierTqmedos   maTTvis   aucilebeli an zrdaze sxvadasxva pH-is dros arasasurveli metabolitebiT [43]. sinTezur garemoSi: 1 sakontrolo da 2 – 0,2mg/l garemos pH 7 dros; 3 da 4 – igive, pH 6,2; 5 da 6 – igive, pH 5,3; 7 da 8 – igive, pH 8,0.

vercxlis preparatebiT baqteriebis ganadgurebis efeqti Zalian maRalia. v. uglovis [44] monacemebiT es efeqti 17,50-jer Zlieria imave koncentraciis karbolmJavis moqmedebaze da 3,5-jer Zlieria sulemaze. naSromis [7] avtoris monacemebiT vercxlSemcveli wyali mniSvnelovnad aqtiuria qlorze, qlorian kirze, natriumis hipoqloritze da sxva Zlier mJangavebze imave koncentraciebSi (nax. 3.):ნახატი 3nax. 3.

sxvadasxva madezinficirebeli preparatebis baqtericidulobis Sedareba nawlavTa   Cxirebis (a) da fleqsneris baqteriebis (b) SemTxvevaSi. reagentis koncentracia 1mg/l, temperatura 7°C: 1 – vercxlSemcveli wyali;
2 – amargeni
3 – fenoli
4 – qlori
5 – qlorkiri

j. porteri [44] Catarebuli kvlevebis safuZvelze miuTiTebs, rom Stamebidan Staphylococcus aureus, brucella abortus, Ebertella typhosa, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibria comme, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium phlei vercxlis moqmedebisadmi yvelaze meti midrekileba aqvT mikobaqteriebs.

vercxlSemcveli wylis moqmedebis efeqturobis mixedviT nawlavTa baqteriebis jgufisa da stafilokokebis ganlagdeba mwkrivSi SeiZleba aseTi TanamimdevrobiT: nawlavTa Cxirebi < fleqsneris baqteriebi < stafilokokebi [45].

vercxlis gavleniT baqteriebis daRupvis kinetika naCvenebia nax. 4. saidanac Cans, rom Escherichia coli daRupvis siCqare damokidebulia vercxlis koncentraciaze. mag., 1mg/l dozis dros nawlavTa Cxirebis daRupva iwyeba 3wT Semdeg, 0,5mg/l dozisas – 20 wR Semdeg, 0,2mg/l dozis dros – 50wT, xolo 0,05mg/l dozisaTvis saWiroa daaxloebiT 2 saaTi kontaqtSi yofna sruli baqtericiduli efeqtisaTvis. sainteresoa aRiniSnos, rom vercxlis antimikrobuli moqmedebis dawyeba aseve damokidebulia mis koncentraciaze. 0,05mg/l dozisaTvis esaa 5wT, 0,2mg/l – 3wT, 0,5mg/l-Tvis – 2wT. 1mg/l da ufro maRali dozis SemTxvevaSi vercxlis moqmedeba iwyeba dezinfeqtantis Seyvanis momentisTanave.

vercxlis ionebiT inhibirebis dros, C. utilis kulturis zrdis damokidebuleba mis koncentraciaze dadgenilia naSromSi [39], romlis monacemebis mixedviT irkveva, rom vercxlis ionebis 0,0047 mg koncentracia mTlianad Trgunavs 1ml-Si 1mln ujredis zrdas maSin, rodesac 0,0006-0,008mg   1mln ujredi/ml-ze  astimulirebs  mikrobuli  populaciis  zrdas.  

  nax.4.

Escherichia coli daRupvis kinetika vercxlis sxvadasxva koncentraciis moqmedebiT: 1 – 1,0; 2 – 0,5; 3 – 0,2 da 4 – 0,5mg/l. sawyisi dasnebovneba – 104 erTeul/ml. amasTan, naSromSi gansazRvrulia vercxlis ionebis koncentraciis diapazoni 0,13-dan 0,54mg/l-mde, romlis drosac liTonis ionebiT C.utilis zrdis siCqaris damuxruWeba emorCileba arakonkretuli damuxruWebis enzimaturi reaqciis gantolebas. koncentraciaTa am intervalSi  amuxruWebs erT-erT reaqcias metabolizmSi, romelic iTvleba ,,viwro adgilad” populaciis zrdis procesisTvis.

naSromis avtoris [14] mier gamokvleulia vercxlis antimikrobuli Tvisebebi Streptococcus faecalis mimarT. cdebiT dadasturebulia, rom vercxlSemcveli wyali am SemTxvevaSic xasiaTdeba maRali baqtericiduli efeqtiT. natriumis hipoqloritma, qlorianma wyalma, iodma da azotmJava vercxlmac ki gamoavlines naklebi aqtiuroba, vidre vercxlis xsnarebma, romlebic miRebulia eleqtrolizis meTodiT [45].

eleqtrolizis meTodiT miRebuli vercxlis xsnarebs aqvT ufro maRali antimikrobuli efeqti, vidre penicilins, biomicins da sxva antibiotikebs da Zlier damRupvel gavlenas axdens baqteriebis antibiotikurad mdgrad Stamebze [46].

samecniero literaturaSi aris monacemebi imis Sesaxeb, rom gramuaryofiTi baqteriebi ufro mgrZnobiarea vercxlisadmi, vidre gramdadebiTi. kruze, fiSeri [47], avaqiani [48] da sxva mkvlevarebis mier aRniSnulia, rom vercxlis mimarT ufro mdgradia safuaris da safuaris msgavsi sokoebi. obiani sokoebis mimarT vercxli aseve naklebaqtiuria [49,50]. garda amisa, vercxlis moqmedebisadmi maRal mdgradobas iCens Tionuri da sulfatreducirebuli baqteriebi [51].

rogorc wesi, paTogenuri mikroorganizmebi ufro mgrZnobiarea vercxlisadmi, vidre saprofitebi. cimermani literaturis mimoxilvaSi gvamcnobs, rom wylis baqteriebis Stamebi eCvevian vercxls. magram arsebobs sapirispiro Sexedulebac. mag., naSromis [52] mixedviT nawlavTa Cxirebi, Setanili mineralur wyalSi, dakonservebuli vercxliT, ar warmoqmnis mdgrad Stamebs. motanilia, agreTve monacemebi, romlis Tanaxmad vercxlis mcire koncentraciebi, ara mxolod ar iwvevs mikroorganizmebis sikvdils, aramed Zalian xSirad astimulirebs maT zrdas [53,54].

naSromis [26] mixedviT, 1mg/l vercxli, 30wT ganmavlobaSi, iwvevs gripis virusebis Stamebis A1, B da mitrs – Stamebis srul inaqtivacias.

sakiTxi vercxlis gavlenis Sesaxeb baqtriofagebze dRemde rCeba gaurkveveli. braunis [26] monacemebiT, vercxlis maRali dozebic ki, mxolod Zalian mcire drois ganmavlobaSi, moqmedeben baqtriofagze. sapirispiros amtkiceben eberti, Sapiro [55], megau [56], grigorieva [57,58], romlebic aRniSnaven, rom vercxli xasiaTdeba maRali aqtiurobiT baqteriofagebis mimarT.

zogierTi saxis mikroorganizmebze vercxlis moqmedeba Seswavlilia naSromSi [37]. cdebi Catarebulia mikroorganizmebTan, romlebic miekuTvnebian sxvadasxva taqsonometriul jgufebs: Aspergillus niger, Pseudomonas pyocyaneum, Mycobacterium sp. da Candida utilis. dadgenilia, rom yvelaze mgrZnobiare vercxlisadmi aris Mycobacterium sp. vercxlis aqtiuroba Pseudomonas pyocyanea  da Candida utilis mimarT gamoisaxeba sidideTa siaxloviT, xolo yvelaze mdgradi aRmoCnda Aspergillus niger kultura.

ukrainis janmrTelobis dacvis saministros infeqciur daavadebaTa institutSi, epidemiologiis, mikrobiologiis da parazitologiis institutSi, agreTve tajikeTis WirissawinaaRmdego sadgurSi Seswavlilia vercxlis moqmedeba infeqciur daavadebaTa amgznebebze, romlebic gadaecema wyliT. rogorc kvlevis Sedegebidan Cans, aseT SemTxvevebSi vercxlis baqtericiduli efeqti vlindeba ukve 0,1-0,2mg/l koncentraciebis da 10-dan 60 wuTamde sakontaqto droisas. yvelaze ufro kontaqturi aRmoCnda qoleris, Semdeg tifo-paratifozuri infeqciebisa da dizenteriuli baqteriebis amgznebebi [59,60].

sazRvargareTuli gamokvlevebiT dadgenilia, rom vercxlis ionebis moqmedebiT SedarebiT swrafad iRupeba proteinebi [61], salmonelebi, pigmenturi baqteriebi, vibrionebi [62,63] da sxva mikroorganizmebi.

naSromis [64] mixedviT vercxlis marilebis wyalxsnarebi klavs nawlavTa Cxirebs 109 erTeuli/l koncentraciisas, 24sT-is Semdeg, sul 0,4mg/l dozis dros. am sidideTa Tanafardoba miekuTvneba nivTierebebis mcire raodenobaTa biotikuri zemoqmedebis raions, mag., hormonebs, vitaminebs, mikroelementebs. sxva avtorebi, kerZod, k. vurmani, b. polaki, miuTiTeben vercxlis baqtericidul koncentracias – 0,05-0,1mg/l. x.stuxlikas da d. jeimsis monacemebiT, baqtericiduli koncentracia Seadgens 0,2mg/l, drois 30 wuTiani kontaqtisas.

zogierTi mecnier-mkvlevaris azriT (libi, kruze, fiSeri da sxv.) mJavamdgrad, tuberkulozur, agreTve saprofitur wylis baqteriebze vercxli moqmedebs mniSvnelovnad naklebi efeqturobiT.

samecniero literaturaSi aris monacemebi, rom baqteriebi, romlebic mdgradia antibiotikebis – penicilinisa da biomicinis mimarT, ar xasiaTdebian mdgradobiT vercxlisa da misi preparatebisadmi.

vercxlis antimikrobuli moqmedeba araa kavSirSi maTi mdgradobis xarisxTan antibiotikebisa da qimioTerapiuli preparatebis mimarT. amas SeiZleba hqondes didi praqtikuli mniSvneloba vercxlis gamoyenebisaTvis medicinaSi.

vercxlis antimikrobuli speqtris Seswavlis paralelurad, naSromis [7] avtoris mier Catarebulia gamokvlevebi vercxlis baqtericiduli moqmedebis intensifikaciis mimarTulebiT wyalbadis peroqsidis, aqtiuri qloris, ultraiisferi sxivebis da ultrabgeris, agreTve eleqtruli velis daxmarebiT. cdebis mixedviT dadgenilia, rom sasmel wyalze wyalbadis peroqsidis 3mg/l koncentraciis damatebiT miRebulia saimedo gausnebovnebis efeqti vercxlis 0,05mg/l dozisa da drois 20wT kontaqtis dros. vercxlisa da wyalbadis peroqsidis antimikrobuli efeqti SenarCunebulia wylis sinjSi damausnebovneblis Escherichia coli damatebiT Setanis drosac. es monacemebi gviCvenebs, rom wyalbadis peroqsidTan vercxlis SerwymiT damuSavebuli meTodis gamoyeneba SeiZleba sasmeli wylis rogorc gausnebovnebisTvis, ise dakonservebisaTvis. sasmeli wylisTvis jer qloris (1mg/l), xolo Semdeg (5-10wT) vercxlis (0,05mg/l) damatebiT dezinfeqtantebis efeqti Zlierdeba, kontaqtis dro mcirdeba, xolo vercxli makonservebel Tvisebebs inarCunebs 7 da meti Tvis ganmavlobaSi [15,45]. ultraiisferi sxivebi aseve mniSvnelovnad aZliereben vercxlis antimikrobul Tvisebebs (saimedo efeqti 1-2wT-is Semdeg). vercxlis mcire dozebis baqtericiduli efeqti wyalSi SeiZleba mniSvnelovnad amaRldes da daCqardes ultrabgeriTi zemoqmedebis dros [65]. ujredebisTvis, araletaruli koncentraciebisaTvis, ultrabgeris gamoyeneba asustebs ujredul barierebs, xels uwyobs vercxlis swraf SeWras ujredSi da baqteriebis sicocxlisTvis mniSvnelovani centrebis dazianebas.

Seswavlilia [7], agreTve qlorisa da vercxlis jamuri zemoqmedeba sasmel wyalze da dadgenilia, rom dezinfeqtantebis Seyvana TanamimdevrobiT – qlori, xolo Semdeg vercxli (maTi koncentraciebis gazrdis gareSe) ganapirobebs wylis ufro efeqtur gausnebovnebas, vidre maTi cal-calke gamoyeneba.

cdebi Catarebulia aseve dizenteriis, muclis tifis da paratifis, salmonelebis, eSerixiis enteropaTogenur tipebze.

wylis gausnebovnebis aseTi kombinirebuli xerxebis gamoyenebiT naCvenebia [42], rom misi baqtericiduli moqmedeba, paTogenuri baqteriebis mimarT, naCvenebi TanamimdevrobiT, vlindeba swrafad, maT daRupva iwyeba 40-60wT Semdeg, xolo zogierTi Stami kvdeba 20wT Semdegac [7]. aseT SemTxvevaSi vercxlis makonservebeli Tvisebebi SenarCunebulia 7 Tveze met xans [15, 45].

gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa wylis gausnebovnebis intensifikaciis procesi eleqtruli veliT [66]. Catarebulma gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom paTogenuri mikrofloris sikvdilianoba (Escherishia coli 055, 011, Shigella Sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium) iwyeboda ukve eleqtruli velis daZabulobis dabali mniSvnelobisa da vercxlis ionebis 0,05mg/l koncentraciis dros. sakmarisi baqtericiduli efeqti miRweulia 0,01mg/l vercxlis Semcvelobisas. xsnaris temperatura izrdeboda ara umetes 2°C, rac gamoricxavda gadaxurebis zonis warmoqmnas.

damuSavebis aRniSnuli meTodi efeqturia enterovirusebis inaqtivaciis drosac.

vercxliTa da deniT wylis gausnebovnebis procesze gavlenas axdens ara mxolod velis daZabuloba, aramed, agreTve wylis nakadis siCqare, misi marilovani Sedgeniloba, temperatura, pH, masSi arsebuli mikroorganizmebis saxeobebi da sxv. magram am ukanasknel faqtorTa gavlena SedarebiT sustia, vidre mxolod vercxliT wylis gausnebovnebis SemTxvevaSi. mag., vercxli umniSvnelo zemoqmedebas axdens zogierTi mikroorganizmis sporovan kulturebze 0,5mg/l koncentraciebis drosac maSin, rodesac velTa gadafarva saSualebas iZleva moxdes wylis sruli gausnebovneba vercxlis 0,05-0,1mg/l dozebiT, masSi Bacillus subtilis 105 erTeuli/l arsebobis dros.

Catarebulma gamokvlevebma [67,68] aCvenes baqteriebis sicocxlisunarianobasa da maT bioeleqtrul maxasiaTeblebs Soris urTierTdamokidebuleba dezinfeqtantebiT wylebis gausnebovnebis procesSi, mudmiv eleqtrul velSi. es saSualebas iZleva vivaraudoT, rom velSi qimiur nivTierebaTa antimikrobuli moqmedebis intensifikacia miRweulia baqterialuri membranebis SeRwevadobis gadidebiT, ris Sedegadac advili xdeba dezinfeqtantebis ionTa Sexeba ujredebis aqtiur cilovan centrebTan.

mikroorganizmebze mudmivi eleqtruli velis zemoqmedebas aqvs ormagi xasiaTi. erTi mxriv, qimiur nivTierebaTa gausnebovnebis efeqtis gaZliereba SeiZleba moxdes eleqtrolizis baqtericiduli produqtebis warmoqmnis Sedegad. meore mxriv – Tavad mudmivi eleqtruli veli uSualo gavlenas axdens baqteriebze, aqcevs ra maT ufro advilad dasaZlevs antimikrobuli nivTierebebisaTvis. eleqtruli velis moqmedebis aseTi xasiaTi saSualebas iZleva gamoyenebul iqnas igi sxvadasxva marilovani Sedgenilobis wylis qimiuri gausnebovnebis intensifikaciisaTvis.

aseve interes warmoadgens vercxlis ionebis gamoyeneba adsorbirebul mdgomareobaSi. naSromSi [69] naCvenebia, rom qsovilis filtrebi, romlebic vercxls Seicaven, uzrunvelyofen srul masterilizirebel moqmedebas da xangrZliv baqtericidul efeqts vercxlis koncentraciisas filtratSi 0,05-dan – 0,08 mg/lmde, 3 sT eqspoziciis pirobebSi.

bolo periodis kvlevaTa safuZvelze dadgenilia, rom kvebis produqtebis garkveul nawilSi, kerZod, yurZnis Rvinis SedgenilobaSi, sxva makro-, mikro- da ultra-mikroelementebTan erTad, dafiqsirebulia masSi vercxlis ionebis () arseboba, romelic garkveulwilad ganapirobebs mis antibaqterialur qmedebas [70].

dReisaTvis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani amocana, romelic dgas medicinis winaSe aris efeqturi saSualebebis Zieba virusebis, zogierTi gramuaryofiTi baqteriebis (protei, lurjCirqovani Cxirebi) winaaRmdeg brZola. gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs universaluri saSualebebisa da reJimebis moZiebas mikrobTa antibiotikomdgradi formebis dasaTrgunad, kerZod, stafilokokebis, dizenteriebisa, tuberkulozis baqteriebis da sxvaTa mimarT.

am mimarTulebiT, vercxls gaaCnia Seudarebeli upiratesobebi dRemde arsebul yvela antimikrobul saSualebasTan SedarebiT.

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